The Garden Haul Comes In.

Interrupting the recipes for a quick update on the garden foods.

Well, we’re not quite there yet. Beans are not yet ripe, neither are tomatoes. Still got plenty of greens to harvest, as well as around 4/5 of the potatoes. The carrots and beets and turnips could do with another growth spurt too. But both in preparation for moving and because things ripen at different speeds, a load of stuff has already been coming in.

The raspberry bushes. Not actually “ours”. Wild-seeded.

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Raspberry, strawberry and blackcurrant jam prep.

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This year’s attempt at restocking the jam supplies. Got blackberry jam to make soon, then elderberry jam and apple sauce. Hopefully plum jams, but we don’t grow our own so that depends on overstock from neighbours.

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Just a little peek into the top of our bag of frozen blackberries. Pretty much every time I’ve gone out, I’ve been picking early blackberries and freezing them. The picture doesn’t show it well, but the bag has around 1.5-2L of blackberries in it. They will need rinsing from frozen, defrosting gently, adding to however many fresh ones I can gather as September advances, then stewing down for more jams!

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The very last batch of rhubarb. Probably going to be a tart, or maybe a sweet sauce for topping a flan. Now’s time to move the plant roots into pots, to move down to our new place, ready to plant out next Spring.

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Around 1/10 of the potatoes, because we ate half of this batch before I took a photo. Digging them up 1/5 at a time, starting with the shallow ones, to prevent parasites and rot from getting them first. They’re possibly the starchiest potatoes I have ever had. 😀

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And finally some of the greens we are growing. No pesticides, so a bit nibbled, but fine to eat.

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Here are some fresh greens, early beans and herbs being prepped for a stew.

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In short, the garden is serving us well this year.

Sadly my pea plants were not as robust as the beans, though, and produced only a handful of pods before succumbing to the sun during my week of absence. There’s always next year, though!

 

For help starting out homemaking, check out The ESSENTIAL Beginner Homemaker’s Guide. For help budgeting all your everday and not-so-everyday essentials, from food to transport to clothes, check out On A Budget: The good homemaker’s guide to economizing.
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FitFriday, FatFriday IX. I could eat a house.

Baby.

Still nothing obvious other than we saw the scan and s/he’s literally floating around in there. And I still can’t eat mussels or pilchards. They’re nasty, apparently.

Keep wondering about an odd sensation I get. It’s like a period or digestion cramp, but weird and “bouncy”. Makes me curious as to whether that’s when baby bounces off the wall, like s/he did during the ultrasound.

Weights.

Sticking at my 6×4 routine and working my squats up to 60kg before I can’t do squats any more. I’m sure I’ll be fine, but my damaged abs might not hold much longer.

Everything else is going great, though, and all this work in the garden, squatting on hills as I plant beans, making steps up and down the hill, moving rocks and weeding beds, is keeping me nicely busy throughout the day. Got drenched through when the sky literally opened a few days ago, but seems I managed to get in and change fast enough to avoid catching anything.

Bee haven:

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An overview of the garden a week ago:

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Pictures of the edibles (potatoes, peas, beans, tomatoes, assorted berries, turnips, leaves, etc] will be up next week, when everything has bedded down enough to get a good look!

Diet.

Why am I so hungry???

Oh yes, baby. 😛

In all seriousness, I’m not sure if I’m running a low level deficiency, starving for protein or just overdoing the gardening, but I am starving right now. As I type this I have had rhubarb tart with a pint of sweetened soy milk for breakfast, two hard boiled eggs and half a mango for snacks, egg and sausage oatcakes, another slice of rhubarb tart and am still eyeing up some corn cakes to load with peanut butter. A part of me wonders if I need more calories, but another part of me knows that you only need to add around 200/day in the second trimester and that my calorific needs are well under 1800/day when I’m not hiking around with 27kg on my back every day. And I am well over 2200 today anyway.

Still want to eat everything, though. 😦

How did your week in fitness go?

10 Things That Grow In Clay And Frost.

If you’re anything like me, you love to DIY as much as possible.

Which means that growing food in difficult soil winds us up continually.

Here are 10 things that survived clay soil and frosty winters year after year here, making garden food easy to grow and maintain.

1: Potatoes.

Adored worldwide as a staple, potatoes survive almost anything. Normally by early Spring the leftovers of my Winter harvest has begun chitting (technical term here, no laughing!] and I can plant them out. But even when I didn’t my potatoes reseeded themselves from the tiny spuds left behind last year.

Literally any time a potato grows shoots, plant it out and see what happens.

Just don’t plant out chitting potatoes straight into frost. Plant out clean ones early, green ones later. The shoots can be devoured by frost and you will waste good potatoes.

2: Woody berries.

Woody berry bushes like blackberries, raspberries, currants and gooseberries all do great in our soil and even through frosts. They thrive in hedge areas.

3: Parsnips.

Our parsnips reseed themselves every year, although I will often let a single ‘snip become fully mature and harvest all the seeds to keep over Winter, to minimize crop loss. They do great and are actually tastier once the first Winter frost has nibbled them.

4: Brassicas.

Not great at reseeding themselves in our soil, but they are persistent. Still got three broccoli bushes from two years ago. They have never floured, so I never picked them, but I gather the leaves in Winter and they dutifully regrow in Spring.

5: Marjoram.

Cut back and dry out your marjoram over Winter, leave it alone over Spring and Summer to regrow. It’s a beautiful, fragrant herb that does well pretty much anywhere.

6: Strawberries.

I always thought strawberries were fickle plants that keeled over and died at nothing at all. Apparently only the leaves are. I planted our strawbs out where they can be guarded by weeds and parsnips and they are thriving. They just need a bit of foliage around them to help retain enough water, a wall against late frosts and a little sunshine and they produce berries even in the harshest soil.

7: Mint.

Mint grows everywhere and will dominate your whole garden.

8: Rhubarb.

Rhubarb is not at all hard to grow. Just make sure the roots don’t get choked by grass or weeds as they get established, pull the stems out instead of cutting them and clear up after Autumn is over. They will grow back.

9: Chives.

A little like mint, established chives will regrow year after year without a problem and slowly creep across your garden.

10: Raddishes.

Never had bad luck with raddishes anywhere. Sometimes not had particularly good luck and this soil is awful for them compared to milder, softer soils. But they still grow here. Sow them out, wait, and they will rise up for you to eat all through Summer and Autumn. They don’t really reseed, though, as we eat them before they flower.

And those are 10 plants that survive our garden. What troubles does your garden have? Got any gardening staples?

TTFN and Happy Hunting!

 

For help starting out homemaking, check out The ESSENTIAL Beginner Homemaker’s Guide. For help budgeting all your everday and not-so-everyday essentials, from food to transport to clothes, check out On A Budget: The good homemaker’s guide to economizing.

How To… get your garden started!

As I mentioned in Welcome Spring, a part of Spring I love is gardening. I love planting everything out as the weather warms, watching the baby rabbits try and invade my lettuce and cabbage patches, harvesting the fresh fruit and vegetables.

And April is the time when most of my gardening happens.

Now, the first few steps I have actually already done! I prefer to turn the soil in late Winter, when it is frozen hard enough to turn in huge lumps, but soft enough to get a shovel into. I like starting my seedlings early in case the first lot don’t take. And I would rather have the garden ready by the time I’m planting out. But you can do all of this now and get your garden started a little later and you won’t miss out on much.

Step 1: Decide what you’re doing.

No point lifting a finger until you know what will be happening. Go into your garden and draw a sketch of it. It can be as detailed or as simple as you want. Just make sure you draw out your current beds, your grass and any areas you can’t dig or plant on (for whatever reason).

Next, take a standard soil sample from your garden. Take note of whether there are very different soils in any areas of the garden and make sure you get samples of them too. You can go back inside now.

First test the soil samples and make sure they aren’t too salty, clay, sandy or full of bits and stones. What soil you have is very important to what you can grow.

Free test:

Pro test:

Once you know what soils you have, make a list of the different plants you want to grow and where they can grow.

Use your map to decide where you will plant everything and what you will plant on its own or together.

Step 2: Prepare the beds.

Now that you know what you will be planting and where, start turning the soil everywhere it needs it. Make sure soil is enriched where it needs to be. Add woodchips where needed, supports where needed. Basically get everything ready.

Step 3: Plant the seeds.

Plant your seeds following the directions. Be warned that most seeds do better in pots or planters indoors to start out with, even if this isn’t recommended.

For plants that you want to be abundant or for leafy greens, just sow the seeds out and see what happens. For plants that will bear fruit or delicate flowers, plant indoors at first to guarantee a greater number.

Make sure indoors plants are by a window, away from drafts and heaters, where they get plenty of light, some shade and not extreme temperature changes.

Step 4: Weed, plant out, protect.

Once your seedlings are ready to plant out, first harden them to insects, wind and weather by placing the pots outside during the day. If there are still frosts, bring them in every night until the frosts subside. Then, leave them out at night. If you spot insect damage, keep moving them to different areas and check on them throughout the day. Encourage natural insectivores to visit and use natural insect deterrents.  After a few weeks of this they should be robust enough to survive if planted out.

Weed the surrounding area well to ensure no roots remain that would choke your plant. Dig a pit big enough for the entire pot or around a fist if you’re planting out smaller plants from shared pots. If it’s a single plant in a pot, ensure the soil is dry and turn it over with your hand supporting the soil and the stem of the plant between your fingers. This way you ensure minimal root damage. Turn the plant the right way around and place it, soil and all, into the hole. If it’s in a shared planter, use a trowel to dig deeply all around it, making sure not to damage the roots. Use the trowel to lever out the plant and place it in the hole.

Use clear plastic tubs, bean nets or whatever necessary to shield the plants from the elements and wildlife for a few days as the roots take hold.

Step 5: Keep an eye on.Watch your plants closely without disturbing them. If one succumbs to disease or parasites, remove it before the others are affected. Make sure they don’t get too dry or soaked. Keep larger pests away from them. If they are taking, new buds will appear within a week or two. If there are no new buds or leaves after a month, the plant may be struggling. Add extra nutrients to the soil to encourage solid root growth. After a month of no growth the plant will often die. Don’t worry about this unless all of them are dying. Some plants will always suffer root damage or not take to new soil. As long as most of them made it, you did well.And that’s how to get a garden going!What is your garden like? Are you an avid gardener with advice to offer? Or a novice with questions? Either way, feel free to start some discussion in the comments!TTFN and Happy Hunting!

How to… Forage, Roast and Preserve Wild Hazelnuts.

This week’s How To may be a little out of date for some areas, but there are still hazelnuts around a bit further South, so make use of them whilst they last!

1:  The first step in foraging is to know what you’re looking for. Hazelnuts are especially hard to spot, as their leaves resemble many others and their nuts are covered by a light green cover that is easily confused for the leaves themselves. So first of all let’s find what the trees look like.

Hazel trees can be short or very tall and still bear fruit. The young ones look like bushes with no apparent main trunk, whereas the older ones have a slim trunk, many almost horizontal lower branches and upwards pointing middle and upper branches. This results in many branches very close to the ground. The bark is thin, smooth and silvery brown.

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The leaves are round and thick and rather light, though not as bright as a young leaf. They grow rather sparsely.hazel1

2: Once you have found a hazel tree, it’s time to check whether the nuts are ripe. An unripe hazelnut has no kernel, so there is no point picking them yet.

The hazelnuts themselves are fairly hard to spot, so to identify a hazel with ripe nuts it’s best to look at the ground. Underneath the tree you should see a number of hazelnuts on the floor.

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The casings you see will tell you what to look for in the branches. There are generally two types of casing even though there are many types of hazelnut. One type covers the entire hazelnut in a long green sleeve. The other exposes some of the nut. With the first it can be hard to tell which fruits are ripe, but with the latter it’s fairly easy to spot.

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White hazelnuts are often unripe, but if they have a white top and brown beneath the sleeve they should be ripe. Ripe hazelnuts also usually fall out of the sleeve when pressure is put on them, whereas most unripe ones stay where they are.

3: Once you have found a hazel tree with ripe hazelnuts, it’s time to gather them.

The ones off the ground are often good, but some have already rotted or been eaten. Look for cracks and holes in the nut. If it has none, compare it to a nut right from the tree. Often, hollow and rotten ones will have lost some of their shine and gone a bit grey, so they look dusty even when they aren’t.

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The ones on the trees that are brown through or white with a brown base are also ready for picking. Look out for unusually small ones, wholly white ones or ones with a little green on them.

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Be careful when pushing them out of the sleeve: sometimes they fall and can be hard to spot among fallen leaves and other debris.

4: Once you’ve taken them home, it’s time to shell them. Get a nutcracker. A pair of pliers can work too, but may damage the hazelnut.

Sometimes cracking them from two angles is required to get the nut out. Once they’re shelled, remove the brown skin. You can already eat them as they are or use them to make hazelnut milk or baked goods.

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5: But we’re roasting them today. Pre-heat the oven to 140C.

Place your shelled nuts on a tray where they have space to roll around. Use more than one tray if they are cramped. Also, try and sort them by size if it varies wildly, as small ones will burn long before large ones are solid.

Roast until brown. Turn the heat down to 100C and cover them in foil.

Once dry, remove from the oven and cool.

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6: Even though they’re roasted, I’d suggest leaving them to cool in the open and then putting them in a coffee jar with a moisture-absorbing lid or freezing them, as preservation is  not guaranteed.

Perfect Agriculture.

Recently I have been pondering, both for my own practical uses and for a bit of attention for the ego, how, in a state of power, I would go about designing an agricultural system that functioned most efficiently, providing the most food or the most varieties year-round for the least cash input. What follows is an overview of the systems I have integrated into this design. At the end is my explanation as to how I will personally implement it.

This is almost entirely idealistic and assumes that businesses want the greatest eventual profit, rather than the greatest monthly turnover or the lowest quarterly output. It also assumes that the government has an interest in protecting the country and the people and that financial assets, employment for all who can work, food for all and conservation of the environment are weighted evenly.

System 1: Medieval field rotation.

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A tried-and-tested method for getting the most out of your lands.

You divide your fields into three. One of them bears the fruits and vegetables that need the most nutrition. One is full of staple foods that require less nutrition. Another is left to rest. Every season, year or two years you cycle through the fields. You move your staples into the near-depleted soil from the vegetable field, your vegetables into the enriched soil from the resting field and proceed to rest the previous staple field.

For reasons that will be more evident under the following systems, the most benefit would be derived from three hexagonal fields that were rotated on a two year basis.

System 2: Polyculture.

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It should go without saying that monoculture is not the height of efficiency we though it to be. But it apparently doesn’t, so allow me to explain.

Monoculture is efficient in as far as it’s simple. But, much like a single-wheel pulley, simple doesn’t always mean efficient and, if more efficient, it definitely isn’t the most efficient.

The issues with monoculture are as follow.

1: It’s harsher on the soil. There’s a reason wheat fields need artificial fertilizers routinely spread over them and even sometimes need nutrients to be added to the irrigation system. Put simply, no natural environment needs chemical fertilization or nutrients added to the water. This is in part because in nature plants grow in diversity. Some plants put out certain minerals. To them it’s a waste product. To the plant next-to them it may be a life-giving supplement. When a plant dies it decomposes into the soil, shaded and aided by other plants, and its roots return to simple sugars. In a monoculture we don’t get this, so one crop is continually consuming zinc, for example, and there’s nothing to replace this zinc, so we need to add it back ourselves. Phosphor in wheat fields is a perfect real-life example of this.

2: It’s water-expensive. In fact, the mere need for an irrigation system should be a red flag. Most wheat fields used to be grassy hills, woodlands, shrubberies and forests. You may notice that no natural environment needs watering to sustain its plant life. Rain and rivers suffice. This is because the plants that grow in a particular area are adapted to the climate. It is also often because the presence of roots in the earth allows for water-retention, much like the gravel you put in the base of a plant-pot. Finally, plants naturally sweat and will hold this water, along with dew, where vegetation is dense, as in a rainforest. As monoculture is rarely climate-adapted or densely planted, water retention can be very poor.

3: It requires pesticides. In the wild, when a parasite, pest or fungus starts killing-off a specific plant we often find the spread of this disease halting. This is because most parasites, pests and fungi feed on only a few plants or types of plant. If there are twenty potato-plants in this area, but the next twenty are a kilometre away, a potato borer will move into one group, start consuming them and breed to its very limit. If it breeds too much, they kill off the twenty plants and, being far from the other twenty, may die before they find them. This way a plant specie is given a better chance of survival. In a monoculture, you could have thousands of acres of only potatoes. A potato borer infestation will quickly expand and render almost all the potatoes useless for human consumption. The only way to fully control this in monoculture is by use of pesticides. Plants in pesticide-rich soil are likely to need more nutrition and may even be genetically modified to survive the high pesticide load.

4: It works on a very small profit margin and crops require subsidies, as they often fail. Most of the extra profit of running a monoculture comes from not hiring as many people. But wages are cheap and machinery, machinery maintenance, copyrighted GMO plants, pesticides, irrigation systems and artificial fertilization are expensive. At the end of the day, the profits made by the farm are marginal. To boot, oftentimes they would make repeat losses due to crop failure if it weren’t for subsidies, as evidenced by what happened when Monsanto GMO crops where introduced into traditional Indian farms.

Overall, monoculture may be the simplest way of farming, the easiest to manage and the cheapest in terms of initial investment. But running and maintaining a farm over several decades is more realistic in terms of polyculture, especially where fruits are concerned and albeit not regarding modern strains of wheat.

To make this polyculture effective, we need to consider the rich field and the staple field. All three fields will always have fruit- and nut-bearing trees bordering them. Your rich field will carry leafy vegetables, fruits and beans. Your rich field should be the most biodverse. If you’ll need people with what amounts to rakes, their hands and a hoover to harvest them, then the slightly jungle-like nature the biodiversity brings won’t be as much of an issue. Meanwhile, your staple field should carry two or three crops, kept in rows a tractor’s width wide, so it can be harvested with more ease, but with minimized risk of pests.

System 3: Companion plants.

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And, whilst we’re planting a polyculture, we may as well do it right. As mentioned, some plants secrete certain compounds or minerals and absorb certain others. Some release a lot of certain substances when they decay. Planting a plant that secretes a lot of sodium near one that will die if exposed to excess sodium is a bad idea. Likewise, planting several that need a lot of zinc withing touching distance isn’t much good either. What we need to do is pair off plants that go well together, ones that release a nutrient the second crop needs, or that decay to form the perfect mulch for the second crop to thrive. Here are a few ideas:

Alliums with nightshades. That would be onions and their relatives with tomatoes, potatoes and their relatives. Their nutrient balances seem to work together, as observed by many a seasoned gardener.

For mutual benefit, plant alliums with carrots. Yep. No idea why here.

Don’t plant brassicas (cabbages, cauliflowers, broccoli) with nightshades. They can poison or choke each other.

Plant lettuce between your bean plants. The bean plants will shelter and nourish the lettuce and it makes use of the otherwise empty spaces between.

By using a complementary planting system you can make the most of an area, encourage all to grow strong and healthy, discourage pests naturally and basically start creating your own micro ecosystem of foods you can use.

System 4: Allan Savory’s pasture model.

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This is where we get a bit more intense. Every viable ecosystem involves animals. Now, of course, we understand the purpose of bees, worms and other such helpful critters, but we need to start considering two other groups

a: wild animals that are sometimes considered pests

b: domestic animals that produce.

The first group is a bit of a challenge on one front and that’s that we don’t like them. Not usually. I’m talking wasps, ants, beetles, snakes and rodents. Of course, we don’t want our fields or garden overrun with any of them. But the idea is just to let some of them be. Wasps eat some of the more troublesome insects. Ants and beetles clear surface debris the same way worms clear it in the earth. Small mice eat scraps and bugs and snakes keep the mice in check. The ecosystem is likely to form itself. Unless you’re overrun with one specie or another or you have rats, measures needn’t be taken to eradicate an animal from the environment. Control its population? Yes, sure. But embrace the presence of the critters, albeit within your own boundaries.

The second group is a challenge on another front: that they’re hard work. However, Savory’s pasture model requires livestock. And the benefits parched soil receives when animals start grazing on it is incredible, as you’ll see if you click the above link. This is what will tie-in with the resting field of the three-field system.

We need to take some animals that will control our pests, eat the waste and refertilize the soil. For larger operations herds of cattle could be used, but for smaller ones we need smaller scavenging animals. For gardens rabbits and hens should suffice. For now, let’s focus on the medium-sized land and the goats, pigs and hens. These animals are known for eating anything and everything they can fit into their mouths.

We measure the size of the field, work out how many animals could feed off it for a year and set them free. They will strip out any resurfacing plants from the first year, tear down the remains of the staple crop and clear the weeds from the soil. They will dig and turn the earth, eat worms, beetles and wasps. They will make a mess of everything and leave the soil rich for a new crop. They will produce eggs, milk and later meat. Their feed can be supplemented with scraps, weeds and bugs from the first two fields and maybe with some extra feed near the end of the year. The third field becomes useful again, not only providing the fruit and nuts from the trees around it, but providing year-long eggs and milk and a good supply of meat at the end of the year. To make the most of this, the two-year model comes into its own again, with the goats and hens providing two years of milk and eggs before being killed for meat and the pigs being slaughtered as yearlings before the drove is replaced for another year. On a smaller farm or a large garden the rotation may be reduced to one year, but it would really make more sense to reduce the amount of animals kept and make the most of the hens and goats.

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System 5: Conservation model.

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This is especially for larger gardens and actual farms, but I will go into how to apply it in a small-medium garden in the extensions section.

This is, again, to protect the biodiversity of the area and encourage the right sort of bugs to visit. We still don’t wholly understand how intricately an ecosystem interacts, so the only way to ensure that polyculture and Allan Savory’s pasture model can fully function is to not rely on them. This is where the hexagonal shape of the fields starts to come into its own. As three fields meet at the centre, you can create pockets of land to return to a wild state between your three fields. A good way of doing this would be to assess how much land you can spare and prioritize the planting and maintenance of endangered species, allowing the more common flora and fauna to move in on its own.

This land would have to be accessible, but also generally left alone unless there’s a problem such as a fungus spreading among the trees or a rabies outbreak.

Generally just leaving some land alone and later reintroducing endangered species is all it takes. Most land that has been used for crops or neglected for a while can recover and rebuild its ecosystem naturally if left alone.

If the land has not been wild for a very long time, there are several models to follow with the conserved land.

1: Forest. Plant thickly with trees and populate with forest insects and tree animals.

2: Dunes. Plant sparsely with thickets and gorse and let it populate itself.

3: Water. Make an artificial pond, lake or stream. Populate wit water-life.

4: Plains. Sow thickly with grass and wildflower seeds with a border of hedges and trees. Allow to populate itself or populate with game animals.

There are many more, but those are the main ones.

By encouraging biodiversity in the centre of your fields you are encouraging a natural balance of small fauna within the fields themselves, allowing for ladybirds to eat your aphids, worms to turn your soil and bees to fertilize your fruit-bearing plants.

By keeping it in the centre you are allowing other farmers next-to you to create their own wholly different ecosystem pockets inside their fields, creating a diverse spread of plants and animals across the country’s farmed land.

By adding new biodiverse space for endangered animals you contribute to their survival and the survival of ecosystems outside the farmland.

System 6: Local business.

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This is something consumers are starting to strongly push for, which is excellent news for smaller farmers, smallholders, allotments and gardens.

But everyone talks about buying locally, few talk about selling locally. When we talk about big industries and chain shops, of course we start seeing the benefits of not doing so, but what benefits are there to selling locally?

Firstly, it’s cheaper and easier, especially for the small producer. Minimal transport, waste issues or middle men. Which means lower costs all round.

Secondly, the product can be made cheaply for your customers. It’s easier to charge less for something when it has cost you less to produce.

Thirdly, it’s easier to establish business connections. Selling your eggs, wheat and berries to a local bakery is easier to do when you are in regular contact with other local businesses.

Finally, selling locally needn’t be a restriction, especially not in terms of agriculture. People will always need food and by promoting local business and seasonal eating you are moving them away from imported foods and onto local, national foods. This way you have more customers without moving afar. The closer to home something is produced, the cheaper you can sell it, the easier it is to encourage locals to buy it.

It also plays into the Ford wage-structure mentioned under System 8.

All in all, selling locally can be very beneficial to our agricultural system, especially pertaining to small and medium operations.

System 7:  Man-power.

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So if we have a rotatory system with one particularly diverse field and a field of animals, we need to embrace another thing we all but gave up on a few centuries back: good old-fashioned man-power. Of course, we can expect innovation to catch up very quickly and reduce the number or workers needed. But, in principle, part-time, hired man-power is going to be cheaper and more efficient and, to boot, more people in work means more people with money to spend on your goods. It may not be in the short-term interests of the business, but in the long-term interests of a country and all who reside in it and depend on it. Again, idealistic, but oh well.

And how would we assign labour? The most people will need to be employed in the rich field, sowing the seeds, checking for disease and harvesting the plants. The best way to run this would be with part-time employment that allowed people to move around whenever work was slower at their usual farm. A few steady workers who can manage all round and some who can do the more permanent, more specific jobs. These people should ideally have housing provided, either for free or as rented property, so they can live nearby, which would keep their travel costs low. The more you do for them, the happier they are to work for you. Those who don’t stay year-round will need temporary accommodation so they can come and go as they need. Considering their situation, this would have to be catered or at least stocked with food, so they don’t have to worry about driving to town and finding the nearest shops after a hard day’s work.

We would also need permanent trained workers to care for the livestock. Collect eggs, milk the herd, feed the animals, check for injury, let them out in the morning and put them to bed at night.

Finally, we’d need trained staff or visiting specialists to keep an eye on the wild ecosystem to ensure it thrives.

Ideally, our lands would have enough space to house the owners and the largest number of workers present at any given time and we’d be able to keep maids and cleaners employed so that the land workers don’t have to dedicate too much time to ordering the house before setting off to work.

Essentially, it would be a return to Victorian labourers, just with hopefully better pay thanks to the reduced number of them.

System 8: Ford’s wage structure.

Whilst it is often misinterpreted, allow me to explain the concept of Ford’s wage system. Henry Ford doubled his workers pay. Now, first we will discuss his actual reasons for doing this and next we will discuss the beneficial effect this act had on the consumer population. These are not to be confused.

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Ford’s intentions were, as mentioned in the link, to make his investment more efficient. By paying his permanent workers more than the competition he was guaranteeing that they would stay, rather than getting trained by him and leaving for a better paycheck. This should be applied in terms of your permanent workers also, however it can be done in many ways. By providing them with reasonably-priced housing you are already starting to encourage them to stay. Next, adding perks such as days off on a rotatory system, free food from the farm and the likes will keep them around. Finally, whether you give them a competitive salary depends on the environment. If other farms are paying their workers far more than you, you will need to raise your wages, or at least match those of the competition. If they raise theirs in response you may be looking at a wage war, which means there’s a short supply of those workers and/or they need costly training. If other farms don’t mind you matching or exceeding their pay, chances are the workers are abundant. This presents a different issue. If there are many workers there’s a chance yours may leave for a place where people with their training are scarce, hoping for a higher pay. This means you need to out-compete other areas. Make it less financially viable for them to move. Unless there’s a ridiculous excess of people in their position, these workers will stay local and hopefully stay with you.

Of course, with less valuable workers it’s much easier to let them migrate as they need to and just ensure your turnover isn’t too high.

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Next comes the unintended benefit of the wage wars between automobile manufacturers. This is sometimes interpreted as Ford’s intention, but to be fair it’s unlikely that’s what he had in mind. However, there is still much we can learn from it.

The concept is that by paying your workers enough so they can use your product, you increase your consumer base. Now, this makes sense in terms of cars the same way it makes sense in terms of aeroplanes: it doesn’t. If every manufacturer were making a product affordable to the masses through this method we’d all have jets by now. On the other hand, the cars and jets are eventually consumed by the masses, some of which may have helped build them. They just aren’t directly purchased by these people. However in terms of agriculture, it is possible that your workers will purchase your food directly, or having been processed by other local businesses. This means a suitable balance between salaries and product should be found, so that when the produce reaches the customers they can afford to buy it. As between five workers and a machine you may be able to produce food for a hundred or more, this wage structure shouldn’t leave you out of pocket.

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Extensions.

Of course, there are things we could add onto this, on a larger scale, to make it run more efficiently. Rather than go into them in depth, I’ll keep these short and sweet. If you’re interested in why I decided any of these was practical, how it would work or how it could be implemented, feel free to comment and ask.

*Extra tax on imported sustenance foods.

*Lower tax on imported luxuries.

*Subsidies for crop failure of main crop or disease outbreak in animals.

*Limits on how many of a certain crop can be grown in one area.

*Incentives to employ local youth in the non-permanent local jobs.

*Subsidies for those farmers looking to branch out into second tier business.

*Any farmland that doesn’t abide by the main laws can be seized, transformed and sold on to another farmer.

*Big businesses have a limit on the number of farms they can own, but not on the number they can sponsor or invest in.

Using the structure in your own back yard.

So, how about for us everyday folk who aren’t interested in starting a farm anytime soon? Well, many of the above principles can be applied to your own gardening exploits.

Pots, balconies, windows and patios.

To make the most use of these, choose large, heavy pots that you can put more than one plant into. Make sure the area is diverse and the plants are matched well. It could be good to keep beans trailing up the balcony rails, for example, or use a small kumquat to shade some herbs.

Keeping animals would be hard, but encouraging bees and getting some worms to put in the pots can really make a difference.

Small gardens and conservatories.

Keeping animals still isn’t much of an option. Focus on the diversity of the garden plants first and foremost and encourage useful insects. Maybe consider getting a goat or a couple of hens or ducks.

Large gardens.

You can start moving into more interesting territory here. I’d advise using a reasonable number of small animals, like rabbits or hens and other fowl. They can be kept in a run or allowed to roam freely.

You can also start cycling crops a little. Try and move potatoes and cabbages, for example, into earth where you kept beets or carrots last year.

Small fields.

Divide the field into three and start a small operation involving hens, pigs or goats, a staple and some assorted vegetables.

In the above examples, try and encourage biodiversity by assigning a pot, a corner or a strip of land to the sort of flowers bees will like. Let some areas grow a bit wild and keep a compost heap wherever and whatever you’re growing.

How I’m doing it.

1: I have four areas to my garden. One on the compost heap, which will always be for pumpkins, melons and marrows; one on the hill which is currently for pepper plants, tomatoes and leeks; one near the house, which is for cabbages and potatoes and one near the hedge which is for beans and lettuce. I will rest the potato earth and the lettuce areas over Winter and plant the potatoes and cabbage on the hill next year.

2&3: I plant plants together, to ensure they balance each other. Night-shades with alliums, beans with lettuce, berry bushes with sunflowers.

4: I am keeping hens and, when they can be trusted and the bean plants are stronger, they will be allowed to walk among the permanent plants to fertilize the soil in-between. There are currently four of them and they provide 1-4 eggs a day.

5: I have corners of flowers for bees and am planting flowers between my food plants. I am letting some corners of the garden stay wild so as to encourage natural life in. I am corralling  the local ant population into the hedge, where it’s useful.

I’m not currently selling any produce, but may do so in the future.

First garden update.

First garden update.

Considering the garden is doing reasonably well, I decided earlier this week I’d show the progress I’ve made since mid January. Granted, most of the fruits of my labour are small or yet to sprout or be collected, but the difference is marked and I thought I may as well offer an update now and another when we have hens, the cabbages are huge and the bushes bearing berries.

So, this is what the garden looked like in mid January.

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Both photos taken from the patio.

Frost on the ground, flowerbed a bit weedy, no signs of pretty or edible plants beyond the pots. Much work needed to be done!

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The first step I took: turning the flower bed. For some reason it made me very proud.

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The first batches of things I planted. The berry bushes are just sticks and the peppers and beans in the trays didn’t grow. The second batch of peppers and beans are doing nicely, though.

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The first lot of seeds.

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Now for the garden as it currently is. Firstly,the patio pots have been reorganized. There are flowers and bushes and herbs already in some. The two troughs have peas in them and the empty pot next-to them will have coriander. There are multiple flowers in that green pot, along with a solar-powered light, to guide us up when we get home late and to guide students back when they leave late. In the far background there’s a birdbath+table, a hanging bird table and a pallet for the birds to hide under and sit on.

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Also, note the chicken coop and run. On the 26th there will be four re-homed ex-battery hens in there. I found it on Gumtree along with all the necessities for keeping hens (bedding, feed, anti-mite-spray, feeders, etc) and cleaned it, set it up and painted it myself. All in all, around £130, including petrol and the huge bucket of waterproof paint.

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The path is lined with three battery-powered lights (with butterflies as dispersers, because), to light the way at night. I dug a new flower-bed. At Jon’s request, there is a strip of greenery left between the two beds and a grassy path leading to it. We will be putting a bench there and there are already solar-powered lights set in. For this photo I was standing on our compost-heap, near which I will dig another bed to plant pumpkins in (they like very rich soil).

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The current batch of seedlings and seed pots. Lettuces, tomatoes, beans, beets, sunflowers, leeks, peppers, chilies, etc.

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Some of the parsnips I planted in January seem to be taking (thin leafed shoots to the right of the daffodils).

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New bed I dug. The little green things in the bottom left (near the border) are peas and beans. The big leafy things at the back are rhubarb. The rows of green are mystery bulbs. Not sure what they are, but looking forward to finding out! The slope in the back is where peppers, tomatoes, chilies and courgettes will be transplanted when they’re stronger. Not sure what’s going between the peas and beans and the mystery bulbs yet.

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The flowery corner of the flowerbed. Sadly can’t find the photos of when the primulas and daffodils were at their best. We’ve had many visiting bees trying to nest there, so I may get a bee home for them.

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Further up there are the berry bushes interspaced with sunflowers. See that leafy green thing in the mid-right? That’s a redcurrant. Most noticeable growth goes to the redcurrants and gooseberries. Award for least activity goes to the blackcurrants. Award for fussiest plant goes to the raspberries.

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Those teeny-tiny things are seedlings from when I went crazy and just spread random seeds everywhere. I think they’re the forget-me-nots. Looking forward to seeing them come up.

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Leaving good space between these, but may plant some annuals in-between. Two roses and a leafy bush. Want them to grow big and strong! 🙂

Map.

A quick sketch of the current plans for the garden. Still got much to do, but it will be lovely when it’s done. 🙂

Pretty much every bag of seeds cost from 0-99p, every bush and plant cost 99p-£1.50, all the lights cost 99p each and the coop cost £130 total, so it’s not like I’m going all out and spending hundreds on it, either. Maybe nearing £180 by now, but doing well.